Common Eye Conditions

At Hammond Opticians we see a wide range of eye conditions. Below you will find a brief description of some of the most common eye conditions.

If you would like some professional advice and help with an eye condition, please speak to a member of our team.


Astigmatism is a common and usually minor condition of the eye that causes blurred or distorted vision.It occurs when the cornea or lens is not a perfectly curved shape (spherical, like a cricket ball), but rather is elliptical (like a rugby ball).Most people who wear glasses also have astigmatism. Click here for more information.


An imbalance in the make up of the tear film is often a result of eyelid disease. This can be anterior (blepharitis) or posterior (meibomian gland dysfunction). This often leads to symptoms of dry eyes. Click here for more information.

Drooping Eyelid (Ptosis)

Ptosis occurs when the muscles that raise the eyelid are not strong enough to do so properly. It can affect one eye or both eyes and is more common in the elderly, as muscles in the eyelids may begin to deteriorate but can be congenital as well.

There can be a number of causes which include:

  • Congenital
  • Age
  • Neurological – nerve degenerations
  • Myogenic – muscle degenerations
  • Mechanical – trauma, post-operative complications

Dry Eye

The tears that your eyes normally produce are necessary for clear vision and maintaining eye health. Dry eye occurs when your eyes do not produce enough tears, or more commonly, produce tears that do not have the proper chemical composition. Click here for more information.

Eyestrain (Asthenopia)

Asthenopia or eyestrain can typically occur when the eyes are not working effectively or efficiently. It can be thought of as a problem with visual comfort and can be due to uncorrected refractive error, using the wrong pair of spectacles or contact lenses, ageing changes to the eyes or over-working the eyes without adequate rest. Treatment will depend on the underlying cause and can be investigated with one of our comprehensive eye examinations.

Flashes & Floaters 

There can be a number of causes of flashes &/or floaters in the eyes. In many occasions they are due to ageing changes in the vitreous (jelly) of the eye and are safe. However, in some cases they may be due to sight-threatening conditions like retinal detachments or eye tumours. Any new onset of flashes &/or floaters should be investigated urgently to exclude the possibility of serious disease. For more information about our range of Specialist Eye Examinations click here.

Lazy eye (amblyopia)

A lazy eye (amblyopia) is a childhood condition that occurs when the vision in one eye does not develop properly. This means that the child can see less clearly out of one eye and relies more on the ‘good’ eye. Click here for more information.

Long-sightedness (Hypermetropia) 

Longsightedness is a defect of vision causing difficulty focusing on near objects, and even causing a sufferer to be unable to focus on objects at any distance if the weakness is moderate or severe. Click here for more information.


Presbyopia is similar to long-sightedness (hypermetropia) but is specifically caused by age. As we get older the lens of the eye becomes stiffer and less elastic which makes it more difficult for the lens to change shape, resulting in increased difficulties in seeing close objects clearly. Click here for more information.

Red Eye

There can be many causes of red eyes, from simple self-limiting conditions such as a sub-conjunctival haemorrhage to various types of microbial (infective) conjunctivitis to sight-threatening conditions like acute glaucoma. More information will be provided on a special page dedicated to the causes of red eye in the near future.

Short-sightedness (Myopia) 

Shortsightedness is a condition of the eye where the light that comes in does not directly focus on the retina but in front of it. This means a shortsighted person will see close up objects clearly, but objects in the distance will appear blurred. Click here for more information.

Squint (turning eye)

A squint (strabismus) is a condition where your eyes look in different directions. One eye turns inwards, outwards, upwards or downwards while the other eye looks forwards. The affected eye may turn all the time (constant strabismus) or some of the time (intermittent strabismus). Click here for more information.

Twitching eye (Myokymia)

Myokymia is commonly used to describe an involuntary eyelid muscle contraction, typically involving the lower eyelid or less often the upper eyelid. It occurs in normal individuals and typically starts and disappears spontaneously. However, it can sometimes last up to three weeks.

Contributing factors include:

  • Fatigue &/or lack of sleep
  • Stress
  • Overwork
  • Too much caffeine
  • High levels of anxiety

No treatment is usually indicated, other than removing the underlying cause (if known). Some people find use of a hot compress, like an Eyebag helpful in soothing the eye.

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